While the impacts of high exploitation on fish populations and aquatic ecosystems are well-documented for commercial fishing, particularly in the marine environment, the potential biological impacts of angling received less attention. This paper discusses angling patterns within a framework of basic ecological and evolutionary literature and examines potential biological impacts of angling by focusing on study results associated with high exploitation rates and pronounced selective exploitation. The impacts range from impacts occurring directly on the exploited species (truncation of the natural age and size structure, depensatory mechanisms, loss of genetic variability, evolutionary changes), to those that occur on the aquatic ecosystem (changes in trophic cascades, trait-mediated effects). As a third category, impacts related to the angling activity per se are distinguished (habitat modifications, wildlife disturbance, nutrient inputs, loss of fishing gear). Although the main threats to fish often are localized outside recreational fisheries, there is growing evidence that angling and angling associated activities can lead to adecline of fish populations and affect aquatic ecosystems in various ways provided that the degree of the fishing mortality is high and the selective exploitation is intensive. Inconclusion, management implications for sustainable recreational fisheries and areas for future research are outlined.
Documented and potential biological impacts of recreational fishing: insights for management and conservation
Lewin, W.-C., Arlinghaus, R., Mehner, T. (2006). Documented and potential biological impacts of recreational fishing: insights for management and conservation. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 14, 305–367
Appeared in : Reviews in Fisheries Science, 14, 305–367